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The simplest way to zest citrus is to use a tool called a citrus zester. This tool has very small holes at its top that will cut very shallow ribbons out of the citrus fruit. Both a vegetable peeler and a box grater are tools that can be used to zest, however, a citrus zester will yield the best possible result.
For finer shreds, use a microplane grater.
Depending on the particular shape of zest desired, the zester will be used in different ways. If the zest, will be chopped, then rough zesting can be done in any fashion. However, if the zest needs to maintain a specific shape for a garnish (or any other reason), long steady strokes from one side of the citrus are necessary. Steady strokes will create long noodle-like strands, which are great to use as garnish. One note of caution: citrus zest has a very dominant flavor so it is a good idea to blanch and shock the zest previous to garnishing.
If a citrus zester is not on hand, a vegetable or box grater will work acceptably well. However, the vegetable peeler is a coarse zesting tool and a great deal of bitter tasting pith may be scraped off along with the desired zest. When using a vegetable peeler, do not press hard into the citrus to avoid removing any pith. Using a box grater is probably the quickest way to zest, but it is also the most wasteful and sloppy. When using a box grater to zest, hold the citrus firmly in one hand and grate the zest off as you would grate cheese. The grating motion will cause a large amount of juice to be forced out of the zest, lessening the zest's aromatic taste.
Remove both the top and bottom from the citrus.
Position a standard, sharp kitchen knife just to the inside of the orange rind, where the flesh meets the skin. It is important to cut off as much of the bitter-tasting colored flesh (called pith) as possible. You do no want to allow any of the white pith to stay on the flesh, but you also do not want to cut away too much of the flesh itself.
Slice down, following the curve of the citrus to remove as much pith as possible while maintaining the round shape of the citrus.
Clean off any pith that you see attached to the outside of the citrus.
Remove the strings of white pith from the inside of the citrus by inserting a knife just on the inside of a pith line. Cut into the citrus, following the line of pith almost halfway through the citrus.
Then, find the line of pith that is holding the slice you are working. Being careful not to slice through the pith itself, cut inside that line of pith and remove a pith-free triangular piece of fruit.
Continue this process of removing slices of pith-free citrus from the fruit until there is no more fruit to cut. Peel back and hold each pith flap out way as you go.
When you are done removing slices of citrus, squeeze the juices from the pith into a bowl.
Enjoy your sections of oranges.